## Math : Conversion of Percentages to Decimals and Fractions – Lesson 3

This lesson is part of the **Lesson on Conversion Series**. The conversion of Percentages to Decimals or Fractions is usually part of the set of questions on numerical ability. You may also need this skill when solving word problems on ratio and proportion, and on word problems involving discounts, interest, and profit.

Before we begin our lesson, let me again remind you some basic points to remember when converting Fractions, Decimals, and Percent:

- In a fraction, the top number is the Numerator and the bottom number is the Denominator.
- Be careful when counting the decimal places. Here, decimal place refers to the number of digits to the right of a decimal point. So, in 0.25, 25 has two decimal places; in 0.001, 1 has three decimal places; in 0.058, 58 has three decimal places; and in 0.06, 6 has two decimal places.
- The number to the left of the decimal point is the integer. The number to the right of the decimal point is the fractional part.
- ‘Percent’ is a number or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100.

### Converting a Percent to a Decimal:

- Simply move the decimal point two places to the left.
- Remove the percent sign.

Examples:

- 25% = 0.25
- 9% = 0.09

### Converting a Percent to a Fraction:

- Remove the percent sign.
- Find the numerator: The number is the numerator
- Find the denominator: The denominator is always 100 unless the number has a fractional part.
- If the number has a fractional part (refers to numbers to the right of the decimal point), count the decimal places and then remove the decimal point.

The number of decimal places indicates the number of zeroes you need to add to the denominator – 100.

Examples:

- 25% = ?

Find the numerator: 25

Find the denominator: 100 (because 25% has no fractional part)

Thus 25% = 25/100 - 0.8% = ?

Find the numerator: 8

Find the denominator: 0.8 is a fractional part, and there is 1 decimal place. So you add 1 zero to 100, making it 1000.

Thus 0.8% = 8/1000

The Lesson Series on Conversion

## Math : Conversion of Decimals to Fractions, and Percentages – Lesson 2

This lesson is part of the **Lesson on Conversion Series**. Converting Decimals to Fractions, and/ or Percentages are usually part of questions on numerical ability.You may also need this skill when dealing with word problems involving ratio and proportion, and money problems involving discounts, interest, and profit.

Before we go on with our lesson, let me again remind you some basic points to remember when converting Fractions, Decimals, and Percent:

- In a fraction, the top number is the Numerator and the bottom number is the Denominator.
- Be careful when counting the decimal places. Here, decimal place refers to the number of digits to the right of a decimal point. So, in 0.25, 25 has two decimal places; in 0.001, 1 has three decimal places; in 0.058, 58 has three decimal places; and in 0.06, 6 has two decimal places.
- The number to the left of the decimal point is the integer. The number to the right of the decimal point is the fractional part.
- ‘Percent’ is a number or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100.

### Converting a Decimal to a Fraction:

- Find the numerator: The number that you have without the decimal point is the numerator.
- Find the denominator: Count the decimal places (remember what I taught you earlier). If there is only one decimal place, the denominator is 10. If there are two decimal places, the denominator is 100. If there are three places, the denominator is 1000. If you can see the pattern, it’s 1+ the number of zeroes depending on the decimal places.
- If there is a number to the left of the decimal point (an integer), just attach it to the resulting fraction afterwards.

Examples:

- 0.25 = ?

Find the numerator: 25

Find the denominator: 0.25 = two decimal places = two zeroes = 100

Thus 0.25 = 25/100 - 1.33 = ?

Remove the integer (The integer is 1)

Find the numerator: 33

Find the denominator: 0.33 = two decimal places = two zeroes = 100

Thus 0.33 = 33/100

Attach the integer, Thus,1.33 = 1 33/100

### Converting a Decimal to a Percent:

- Simply move the decimal point two places to the right
- Attach a percentage sign.

Examples:

- 0.25 = 25%
- 0.08 = 08 % or 8%
- 0.9 = 0.90 = 90%
- 1.43 = 143%

The Lesson Series on Conversion

## Math : Conversion of Fractions to Decimals, and Percentages – Lesson 1

This lesson is part of the **Lesson on Conversion Series**. Converting Fractions to Decimals or Percentages is usually part of the set of questions on numerical ability. You may also need this skill when solving word problems involving ratio and proportion, and money problems involving discounts, interest, and profit.

Before we go to our lesson, let me again remind you some basic points to remember when converting Fractions, Decimals, and Percent:

- In a fraction, the top number is the Numerator and the bottom number is the Denominator.
- Be careful when counting the decimal places. Here, decimal place refers to the number of digits to the right of a decimal point. So, in 0.25, 25 has two decimal places; in 0.001, 1 has three decimal places; in 0.058, 58 has three decimal places; and in 0.06, 6 has two decimal places.
- The number to the left of the decimal point is the integer. The number to the right of the decimal point is the fractional part.
- ‘Percent’ is a number or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100.

### Converting a Fraction to a Decimal:

- Simply divide the numerator by the denominator.
- Be careful with the decimal places.

Examples:

- 1/4 = 1 (numerator) ÷ 4 (denominator) = 0.25
- 3/2 = 3 (numerator) ÷ 2 (denominator) = 1.50
- 5/8 = 5 (numerator) ÷ 8 (denominator) = 0.625

### Converting a Fraction to a Percent:

- Multiply the numerator by 100.
- Divide the resulting product by the denominator.
- Attach the percentage sign.

Examples:

- 1/4 = ?

1 x 100 = 100 (1 is the numerator x 100)

100 ÷ 4 (4 is the denominator)

= 25% (Attach the percentage sign) - 3/8 = ?

3 x 100 = 300 (3 is the numerator x 100)

300 ÷ 8 (8 is the denominator)

= 37.5% (Attach the percentage sign)

The Lesson Series on Conversion

## Math : Conversion of Fraction, Decimals, and Percent – Lesson Series

Fractions to Decimals, Fractions to Percentages, Decimals to Fractions, Decimals to Percentages, Percent to Decimals, and Percent to Fractions – You have to get used to converting one into another if you want to pass the Civil Service Exam.

So to get you started, let me start by saying that **Decimals, Fractions and Percentages** are just like Number Synonyms. For example, 0.25, 1/4, and 25% – **they all tell you the SAME THING**. They are simply different ways of showing a part of a ‘whole’. That being said, it is EASY to convert their values if you just remember the right steps. Remember that what we discuss here are quick and easy steps that will help you deal with the CSE Math questions.

**Basic points to remember when converting Fractions, Decimals, and Percent**:

- In a fraction, the top number is the
**Numerator**and the bottom number is the**Denominator**. - Be careful when counting the
**decimal places**. Here, decimal place refers to the number of digits to the right of a decimal point. So, in 0.25, 25 has two decimal places; in 0.001, 1 has three decimal places; in 0.058, 58 has three decimal places; and in 0.06, 6 has two decimal places. - The number to the left of the decimal point is the
**integer**. The number to the right of the decimal point is the**fractional part**. - ‘Percent’ is a number or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100.

Now onto the conversion (Please click on the links below)…

**Converting a Fraction to a Decimal, Converting a Fraction to a Percent**

**Converting a Decimal to a Fraction, Converting a Decimal to a Percent**

**Converting a Percentage to a Decimal, Converting a Percentage to a Fraction**

## English Lesson 2 : Subjects with Collective Nouns – Singular or Plural Verb?

Does a singular collective noun take a singular or plural verb? It depends.

**Rule: Use a singular verb for a collective noun if the noun is acting as one unit. If the members of the collective noun do not agree or are acting differently from each other, use a plural verb.**

First things first, what is a Collective Noun? A collective noun is a word for a group of specific items, animals or people.

Here are some examples of collective nouns:

*armada company clan caravan*

* school thicket den flock*

* nest sounder platoon sloth*

* swarm yoke lodge committee*

* class jury audience army*

* council family group team*

Here are some examples on how the rule works:

- The flute ensemble are tuning their instruments.
- The flute ensemble is playing at the Kiwanis Music Festival.
- The pack of dogs were running off in different directions.
- The pack of dogs is chasing after that poor deer.
- The townsfolk cheers the hometown little league.
- The troop disappear in different directions.
- Every afternoon, the baseball team goes out to the field for practice.
- The jury disagree about the guilt of the accused and are at lost for a final decision.

## General Info : 1987 Philippine Constitution – Bits and Pieces – Lesson 1

The Civil Service Exam will include at least 20 items of General Information Questions – which may be about the Philippine Constitution; the Philippine Government; R.A. 6713; Peace and Human Rights Issues, and Concepts; and Environment Management and Protection.

The CSC has got so many things to ask you about under this category but I’m giving you some bits and pieces of what will probably show up in the actual exam. Here’s Lesson No. 1:

- The Constitution of the Philippines ‘Ang Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas’ is popularly known as the 1987 Constitution. It is the supreme law of the Republic of the Philippines. It was adopted on October 15, 1986 and ratified on February 2, 1987 under President Corazón C. Aquino.
- The national territory of the Philippines includes (1) all the islands and waters embraced in the Philippine archipelago, (2) all other territories over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction; and (3) all the waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the Philippine archipelago.
- The waters around, between, and connecting the islands of the archipelago are included in the internal waters of the Philippines.
- The Philippines is a democratic and republican state and its sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them.
- In the Philippines, civilian authority is supreme over the military at all times.
- Article III of the Constiution is the Bill of Rights. It enumerates the specific protections against State power which are the following: The right to due process and equal protection (Section 1), The right against searches and seizures without a warrant (Section 2), The right to privacy (Section 3), The right to free speech and expression, free press, freedom of assembly and the right to petition (Section 4); The free exercise of religion (Section 5); The right of abode and right to travel (Secton 6); The right to information on matters of public concern (Section 7); The right to form associations (Section 8); Protection against impairment of contractual obligations (Section 10); The right to free access to courts (Section 11); The right to be informed of his right to remain silent and to have competent and independent counsel (Section 12); The right to bail & against excessive bail (Section 13); The rights of the accused (Section 14); The right to habeas corpus (Section 15); The right to speedy disposition of cases (Section 16); The right against self-incrimination (Section 17); The right to political beliefs and aspirations (Section 18); The prohibition against cruel, degrading or inhuman punishment (Section 19); Protection against imprisonment for debts (Section 20); The right against double jeopardy (Section 21); Prohibition of ex post facto laws and bills of attainder (Section 22).
- The Armed Forces of the Philippines protects the sovereignty of the Philippines and the integrity of its national territory.

## English Lesson 1 : Singular and Plural Indefinite Pronouns

What are Indefinite Pronouns?

Indefinite pronouns refer to those words which replace nouns without specifying which noun they replace.

Indefinite Pronouns can be Singular or Plural.

(a) Singular indefinite pronouns: another, anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, little, much, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, other, somebody, someone, something, less, little, much.

**Singular indefinite pronouns are used with singular verbs.**

- Everybody is awake
- Everyone is invited to the party.
- Nobody wants to be the school mascot.
- I have tried everything but nothing makes her smile.

(b) Plural indefinite pronouns: both, few, some, fewer, many, others, several, all.

**Plural indefinite pronouns are used with plural verbs.**

- Others do not want to be involved in this issue.
- Both are very responsible kids.
- Many are called but few are chosen.

Note, however, that some indefinite pronouns can be singular in one context and plural in another. It all depends on how the pronoun is used in the sentence or in the paragraph. Here are some indefinite pronouns which can sometimes be used as singular, sometimes plural.

All – may refer to the whole quantity or it can refer to individual things or people.

- All is forgotten
- All are here.

Any – may refer to one or many unspecified pieces, objects, or people.

- Any doctor can help you. You don’t have to find a specialist.
- I do not have any suitcases with me.

More – a greater quantity

- More have left (referring to more guests).
- There is more where that came from.

Most – nearly all

- Most have declined.
- Most is gone.

None – not any, no one

- None of the students got an A.
- None of the cake was eaten.

Some – refers to an unspecified quantity of something.

- Here is some.
- Some have arrived.

Such – referring to something which belongs to the type mentioned.

- Such is not a good idea.
- Such words are not acceptable in formal conversations.

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